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NOAA's next generation of geostationary weather satellites
The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the nation’s next generation of geostationary weather satellites. The GOES-R series will significantly improve the detection and observation of environmental phenomena that directly affect public safety, protection of property and our nation’s economic health and prosperity.
The satellites will provide advanced imaging with increased spatial resolution and faster coverage for more accurate forecasts, real-time mapping of lightning activity, and improved monitoring of solar activity.
The GOES-R series is a four-satellite program (GOES-R/S/T/U) that will extend the availability of the operational GOES satellite system through 2036.
Remote environmental sensing is only part of the GOES-R mission. The satellites will also provide unique capabilities to relay data directly to users to meet critical needs.
DCS is a satellite relay system used to collect information from Earth-based data collection platforms that transmit in-situ environmental sensor data from more than 20,000 platforms across the hemisphere.
GRB is the primary space relay of Level 1b products, replacing the GVAR (GOES VARiable) service. GRB will provide full resolution, calibrated, navigated, near real-time direct broadcast data.
Weather Information Network (HRIT/EMWIN) EMWIN is a direct service that provides users with weather forecasts, warnings, graphics and other information directly from the National Weather Service (NWS) in near real-time. HRIT service is a new high data rate (400 Kpbs) version of today’s LRIT (Low Rate Information Transmission), broadcasting GOES-R satellite imagery and selected products to remotely-located user terminals.
The SARSAT system detects and locates mariners, aviators and other recreational users in distress. GOES-R will continue the legacy function of the SARSAT system on board NOAA’s GOES satellites. This system uses a network of satellites to quickly detect and locate signals from emergency beacons onboard aircraft, vessels and from handheld personal locator beacons. The GOES-R SARSAT transponder will operate with a lower uplink power than the current system (32 bBm), enabling GOES-R to detect weaker beacon signals.
The GOES-R series spacecraft bus will be three-axis stabilized and designed for 10 years of on-orbit operation preceded by up to five years of on-orbit storage. The spacecraft will carry three classifications of instruments: nadir-pointing, solar-pointing, and in-situ. Learn More.
Explore the GOES-R series spacecraft: Use the quick view buttons above to swap the views of the spacecraft, watch the video below and use the Spacecraft & Instruments links below.
A fly by in space of GOES-R. Note: there is no audio, therefore no closed captions.
The most recent images of Earth's western hemisphere from the GOES constellation .
Environmental satellites provide data in several different formats. The most commonly used channels on weather satellites are the visible, infrared, and water vapor.
GOES-16 Preview Image
This composite color full-disk visible image is from 1:07 p.m. EDT on January 15, 2017 and was created using several of the 16 spectral channels available on the GOES-16 Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument. The image shows North and South America and the surrounding oceans. GOES-16 observes Earth from an equatorial view approximately 22,300 miles high, creating full disk images like these, extending from the coast of West Africa, to Guam, and everything in between.
The GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and undergoing on-orbit testing
Visible satellite images, which look like black and white photographs, are derived from the satellite’s signals. Clouds usually appear white, while land and water surfaces appear in shades of gray or black. The visible channel reflects solar radiation. Clouds, the Earth's atmosphere, and the Earth's surface all absorb and reflect incoming solar radiation. Since visible imagery is produced by reflected sunlight (radiation), it is only available during daylight.
In the infrared (IR) channel, the satellite senses energy as heat. The Earth’s surface absorbs about half of the incoming solar energy. Clouds and the atmosphere absorb a much smaller amount. The Earth’s surface, clouds, and the atmosphere then re-emit part of this absorbed solar energy as heat. The infrared channel senses this re-emitted radiation. Infrared imagery is useful for determining cloud features both at day and night.Water vapor imagery is used to analyze the presence and movement of water vapor moisture in the upper and middle levels of the atmosphere. The wavelength spectrum used to detect water vapor is in the 6.7 to 7.3 micrometer wavelength range. The darker regions in water vapor imagery are areas where very little water vapor exists in the middle and upper troposphere, and the lighter regions are very moist. Water vapor imagery is a very valuable tool for weather analysis and prediction because water vapor imagery shows moisture in the atmosphere, not just cloud patterns. This allows meteorologists to observe large-scale circulation patterns even when clouds are not present.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) maintains two primary constellations of environmental satellites: geostationary and polar-orbiting. These satellites are part of NOAA's integrated observing system, which includes satellites, radar, surface automated weather stations, weather balloons, sounders, buoys, instrumented aircraft and other sensors, along with the data management infrastructure needed for this system.
Geostationary satellites orbit 35,800 km (22,300 miles) above Earth's equator at speeds equal to Earth's rotation, which means they maintain their positions and provide continuous coverage. Information from geostationary satellites is used for short-term (1 day) weather forecasting and severe storm warning and tracking.
Polar-orbiting satellites make regular orbits around the Earth’s poles from about 833 km (517 miles) above the Earth’s surface. The Earth constantly rotates counterclockwise underneath the path of the satellite, making for a different view with each orbit. Information from polar-orbiting satellites is used for mid-range (3-7 day) forecasts and advanced warnings of severe weather.
GOES satellites continually view the continental United States, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, Central and South America, and Southern Canada. To fully cover Alaska, Hawaii, the entire continental United States and the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (for tropical storms), NOAA operates two GOES satellites simultaneously: GOES-East and GOES-West. GOES East is located at 75° W and provides most of the U.S. weather information. GOES West is located at 135°W over the Pacific Ocean. In the GOES-R series era, GOES West will be located at 137°W. In addition to two operational satellites, NOAA also maintains an on-orbit spare.
Since 1975, GOES have provided continuous imagery and data on atmospheric conditions and solar activity (space weather). They have even aided in search and rescue of people in distress. GOES data products have led to more accurate and timely weather forecasts and better understanding of long-term climate conditions. NASA builds and launches the satellites and NOAA operates them.
GOES-R launched on November 19, 2016 and will be followed by GOES-S in 2018, GOES-T in 2020 and GOES-U in 2025.The GOES-R series will extend the availability of the operational GOES satellite system through 2036.
GOES-R successfully launched from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket on November 19, 2016 at 6:42 p.m. EST.
GOES-R, which became GOES-16 when it reached geostationary orbit, will be placed in the 89.5 degree West checkout location where it will undergo an extended checkout and validation phase of approximately one year. The satellite will transition to operations immediately afterward.
On May 25, 2017, NOAA announced GOES-16’s operational location as GOES-East. The GOES-East position was chosen primarily because it offers full coverage of the continental United States and provides optimal viewing of the states and cities in the plains, mid-west and east most impacted by severe weather events including Atlantic Hurricanes, thunderstorms and tornadoes, major winter storms, and flooding. GOES-16 will move to its operational position at 75 degrees west longitude in November 2017. Until then, the satellite will remain in its current check-out location to allow engineers and scientists to complete checkout and validation of the GOES-16 instruments and science data products.
GOES satellites are placed into a geosynchronous orbit which is an orbit that keeps the satellite over a specific location on the earth. By maintaining a position hovering over fixed point on the Earth's surface, GOES will be able to constantly monitor atmospheric conditions in a particular portion of the Earth's atmosphere. Note that non-geosynchronous orbits (for example polar orbits) move over an ever rotating earth underneath them, therefore seeing a constantly changing view which has advantages for other types of missions.
GOES-16 joins the GOES constellation of satellites monitoring the Western Hemisphere's weather as well as space weather. Up next: GOES-S in 2018. See the Earth from GOES! ... LIVE images of Earth right NOW!
User training efforts focus on the quantitative and qualitative use of GOES-R series data and products, methods for interpreting GOES-R data, new features, capabilities and algorithms, and a better understanding of atmospheric sciences and mesoscale meteorology in preparation for the GOES-R series satellites.
GOES-R series training is developed and provided by a number of partners across the weather enterprise through the GOES-R Proving Ground and NOAA testbed demonstrations, e-learning training modules, fact sheets, seminars, scientific and user conferences, weather event simulations, special case studies, satellite liaisons, the visiting scientist program and sample data products.
The GOES-R Quarterly Newsletter for the time period April ‒ June 2017 is now available. With the handover of GOES-16 to NOAA’s Office of Satellite and Product Operations and its operational location assigned, we move closer to GOES-16 becoming an operational satellite as GOES-East in November. Scientists and engineers are hard at work to validate the entire system. View the 2Q 2017 newsletter, highlighting GOES-16 post-launch activities and preparations for launching GOES-S next spring.
The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) has completed a product validation review and lightning data is now being distributed to users through the GOES Rebroadcast (GRB) system. All GOES-16 instruments are now transmitting data via GRB! The GOES-16 data are currently in beta status which means the data is minimally validated and not optimized for operational use. It is intended to help users gain familiarity with data formats and parameters. Additional updates and validation will take place before GOES-16 becomes operational in November. Access real-time GOES-16 lightning data from NASA SPoRT.
The GOES-16 Field Campaign, a two-month effort to calibrate and validate the Earth-viewing instruments on NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite, completed mission operations in May. The second phase of the field campaign focused on validating the satellite’s lightning mapper. This feature story highlights a day in the life of the field campaign, as the team hunts for lightning. By clearly measuring a lone, well-defined lighting flash with the plane’s instruments, the satellite’s Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and various ground sensors, scientists can perform an important “one-to-one” comparison to hone in on the GLM’s detection threshold, or sensitivity, for light. Interested in more information about the field campaign? Check out this feature story on the purpose of the mission and learn more about the validation of the satellite’s imager in this recap of phase one of the field campaign.
On June 20, the GOES-16 Handover Readiness Review (HRR) was successfully completed. The HRR certified readiness to transition operational responsibility of GOES-16 from the GOES-R Program to the NOAA Office of Satellite and Product and Operations (OSPO) operations team. NESDIS Assistant Administrator Dr. Steven Volz gave final approval for the transition on June 23 and GOES-16 satellite operations were officially handed over to OSPO!
Satellite operations at the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility (NSOF) in Suitland, Maryland, were relocated from the Launch Control Room to the newly renovated Satellite Operations Control Center on June 9. A ribbon cutting ceremony was held on June 23 at NSOF to officially open the new control center.
On June 1, preliminary data from the GOES-16 Magnetometer will be made available via GOES Rebroadcast (GRB) for users in the weather community with GRB antennas to evaluate. Please note that we are still in the process of calibrating and validating the data, which is not meeting performance expectations at this time. Providing the beta data now to the user community, including the primary user the National Weather Service’s Space Weather Prediction Center, allows for collaborative evaluation of the data while efforts are underway to improve performance.
On May 25, 2017, NOAA announced GOES-16’s operational location at the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season Outlook press conference in College Park, Maryland. The GOES-East position was chosen primarily because it offers full coverage of the continental United States and provides optimal viewing of the states and cities in the plains, mid-west and east most impacted by severe weather events including Atlantic Hurricanes, thunderstorms and tornadoes, major winter storms, and flooding. GOES-16 will move to its operational position at 75 degrees west longitude in November 2017. Until then, the satellite will remain in its current check-out location to allow engineers and scientists to complete checkout and validation of the GOES-16 instruments and science data products. Read the press release for more information.
Fires, whether naturally occurring or man-made, have substantial impacts on both the landscape and air quality. Fortunately, satellites like GOES-16 can detect and monitor fires large and small, and provide data on a range of factors, including location, duration, size, temperature and intensity. How do NOAA satellites detect and monitor fires from space? Learn more in this feature story.
The GOES-16 Post-Launch Assessment Review (PLAR) was successfully completed on May 9. The PLAR is an evaluation of the readiness of the spacecraft systems to proceed with routine operations. An independent review team evaluated the flight and data operations readiness, satellite performance and the readiness to transfer responsibility from the development organization to the operations organization. The passage of this milestone keeps the program on track for the Handover Readiness Review in June.
The 2017 NOAA Satellite Conference (NSC) will be held July 17-20 at City College of New York. NSC 2017 will bring together users and providers of polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite data, data products, and applications from the public, private, and academic sectors. Representatives from more than 40 countries will participate in this event. The theme for the conference is “A New Era for NOAA Environmental Satellites.” Visit the conference website for more information and to take the pre-conference survey. Abstract submissions will be accepted until May 31, 2017.
The GOES-R Quarterly Newsletter for the time period January‒March 2017 is now available. The momentum continues with the release of the first data and imagery from GOES-16 and preparing the satellite to become operational in November. Scientists and engineers are hard at work to validate the entire system. View the 1Q 2017 newsletter, which highlights the first imagery from the satellite, post-launch activities, and preparations for launching GOES-S next year.
Flying out of Palmdale, California, NASA’s ER-2 high-altitude plane and its suite of highly specialized instruments took to the air over the Sonoran Desert in Mexico and the Mojave Desert in Ivanpah, California on March 23 and 28 to validate GOES-16’s ABI— the satellite’s primary instrument. Data from the ER-2 instruments were verified by an array of ground sensors and compared to ABI scans of the corresponding area. Learn more in this feature story.
If you are interested in GOES-R Series international training opportunities, please complete the GOES-R International Training Request Form. Requests will be honored depending on resources available. At a minimum, virtual material can be provided.
When the topic du jour turns to satellite meteorology and its benefits, the spacecraft usually get all the attention. This stands to reason, but there is no denying that satellites are only half of the highly specialized technical apparatus that collects remotely sensed data and makes it available to scientists. The other, less talked-about half of this system is commonly referred to as the “ground system.” Learn more in this feature story.
It may seem that once a satellite is successfully launched, the work is done. But there’s a lot more that goes into making sure it’s ready to provide data for your local weather forecast. The GOES-16 satellite is currently undergoing post-launch testing. What does that mean? Launching a satellite is like opening a new restaurant. Post-launch testing is like a soft opening with a limited audience, which allows for trouble-shooting and preparing for the grand opening. During post-launch testing, there are periodic, planned data outages that are necessary to perform specific verification and validation functions. These outages are generally brief and part of normal post-launch testing, and they are part of the reason it’s important not to depend on GOES-16 data for operational needs during the testing period. Learn more about post-launch testing in this feature story.
The GOES-16 post-launch field campaign is now underway. During this three month campaign, a team of instrument scientists, meteorologists, GOES-16 engineers, and specialized pilots will use an outfit of high-altitude planes, ground-based sensors, unmanned aircraft systems (or drones), the International Space Station, and the NOAA/NASA Suomi NPP polar-orbiting satellite to collect measurements across the United States to support validation of the GOES-16 Advanced Baseline Imager and Geostationary Lightning Mapper instruments. Learn more about the field campaign in this feature story.
In recognition of the newly available GOES-16 cloud and moisture imagery, and providing an opportunity to reach out and expand user readiness, the GOES-R Series Program will offer a special one-day GOES-16 First Results workshop on April 27, 2017. The workshop will be held in conjunction with the 8th NOAA Testbeds and Proving Grounds Annual Workshop at the National Weather Service Training Center in Kansas City, Missouri. If you are interested in attending the GOES-16 First Results workshop, please complete the registration form.
NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service appreciates the enthusiasm in the weather community and support for our newest on-orbit satellite, GOES-16, which will enhance the weather forecasts that save lives and protect property nationwide.
At this time, data from GOES-16 are considered preliminary and are undergoing validation testing. NOAA is therefore requesting that any organizations that redistribute GOES-16 data -- before it is declared operational -- include the following disclaimer with the data:
"NOAA's GOES-16 satellite has not been declared operational and its data are preliminary and undergoing testing."
Users receiving these data through any dissemination means (including, but not limited to, PDA and GOES Rebroadcast) assume all risk related to their use of GOES-16 data and NOAA disclaims any and all warranties, whether express or implied, including (without limitation) any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
It is expected that GOES 16 data will be declared operational, approximately 6-12 months after launch, which occurred in November 2016.
Space weather may sound like the stuff of science fiction, but it’s quite real and taken very seriously. Earth-bound radioactive waves and particles from a solar storm can disrupt communications, navigation, and power grids; cause damage to spacecraft; and even put astronauts and airline passengers at risk of exposure to space radiation.
Technologists have been aware of the threats posed by space weather for years and previous GOES satellites have carried space-weather instruments to monitor and predict potentially harmful space weather. However, none of these earlier instruments were as advanced or capable of providing as much information about the conditions of the sun and near-space environment as the space weather sensors aboard GOES-16. Learn why GOES-16 is our newest and best defense against the threats of space weather.
Detecting and predicting lightning just got a lot easier. The first images from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), a new instrument onboard NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite, are giving forecasters richer information about lightning that will help them alert the public to dangerous weather.
This image shows 1.8 million lightning images accumulated by GLM over one hour, displayed over full disk imagery from the Advanced Baseline Imager. Brighter colors indicate more lightning energy was recorded; color bar units are the calculated kilowatt-hours of total optical emissions from lightning. The brightest storm system is located over the Gulf Coast of Texas.
The first images from the Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) instrument aboard the GOES-16 satellite captured a large coronal hole on the sun on January 29, 2017. The sun’s 11-year activity cycle is currently approaching solar minimum and during this time powerful solar flares become scarce and coronal holes become the primary space weather threat. Once operational, SUVI will capture full-disk solar images around-the-clock and will be able to see more of the environment around the sun than earlier NOAA geostationary satellites.
The new Space Environment In‐Situ Suite (SEISS) instrument onboard NOAA’s GOES-16 is working and successfully sending data back to Earth! This plot shows how fluxes of charged particles increased over a few minutes around the satellite on January 19, 2017. These particles are often associated with brilliant displays of aurora borealis at northern latitudes and australis at southern latitudes; however, they can pose a radiation hazard to astronauts and other satellites, and threaten radio communications. Information from SEISS will help NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center provide early warning of these high flux events, so astronauts, satellite operators and others can take action to protect lives and equipment. This SEISS data shows injections of protons and electrons observed by the Magnetospheric Particle Sensors MPS-HI and Solar and Galactic Proton Sensor (SGPS) on January 19, 2017. MPS-HI and SGPS are two of the individual sensor units on SEISS. The fluxes shown are from the MPS-HI telescopes that look radially outward from the Earth, and from the lowest-energy channel observed by the eastward-looking SGPS.
SEISS is composed of five energetic particle sensor units. The SEISS sensors have been collecting data continuously since January 8, 2017, with an amplitude, energy and time resolution that is greater than earlier generations of NOAA’s geostationary satellites.
Solar flares are huge eruptions of energy on the sun and often produce clouds of plasma traveling more than a million miles an hour. When these clouds reach Earth they can cause radio communications blackouts, disruptions to electric power grids, errors in GPS navigation, and hazards to satellites and astronauts. The Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS) instrument on NOAA’s GOES-16, built by the University of Colorado’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in Boulder, Colorado, measures solar flares at several wavelengths and improves upon current capabilities by capturing larger flares, measuring the location of the flares on the sun, and measuring flares in more wavelengths. The GOES-16 EXIS will provide forecasters at the NOAA’s Space Weather Prediction Center with early indications of impending space weather storms so they can issue alerts, watches and warnings.
The figure shows an example of EXIS observations at two different wavelengths of a flare that peaked at 11:05 UTC [6:05 a.m. EST] on January 21, 2017. This is a relatively small flare, yet the brightness of the sun in soft (lower energy) X-rays increased by a factor of 16. EXIS will give NOAA and space weather forecasters the first indication that a flare is occurring on the sun, as well as the strength of the flare, how long it lasts, the location of the flare on the sun, and the potential for impacts here at Earth.
NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite, formerly known as GOES-R, has sent its first, high-resolution images, and now people around the world can see what this revolutionary satellite sees. The first images usher in a new era of Earth and space weather observation for the U.S. View images and animations from GOES-16’s new Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument, showing the complete full disk of the Western Hemisphere and the continental United States in all 16 channels of the ABI instrument. Learn more about GOES-16 and its first imagery via the NOAA Satellites press release.
The GOES-R Quarterly Newsletter for the time period October-December 2016 is now available. The future of weather forecasting is here! After years of research, development and integration, GOES-R (now GOES-16) successfully launched on November 19, 2016, made it to geostationary orbit, and is sending back data! View the 4Q 2016 newsletter, which highlights the road to launch, launch and post-launch activities.
On December 22, 2016, the GOES-16 Magnetometer (MAG) became the first instrument on the satellite to begin transmitting data! Earth’s geomagnetic field acts as a shield, protecting us from hazardous incoming solar radiation. Geomagnetic storms, caused by eruptions on the surface of the sun, can interfere with communications and navigation systems, cause damage to satellites, cause health risks to astronauts, and threaten power utilities. When a solar flare occurs, GOES-16 will tell space weather forecasters where it happened on the sun and how strong it was. Using that information, forecasters can determine if the explosion of energy is coming toward Earth or not. The GOES-16 MAG samples five times faster than previous GOES magnetometers, which increases the range of space weather phenomena that can be measured. This plot shows preliminary data from the outboard Magnetometer instrument on board the GOES-16 satellite observed December 22, 2016.
July 17-20, 2017
New York, New YorkConference Info
August 23, 2017
Littleton, ColoradoWorkshop Info
September 16-21, 2017
Garden Grove, CaliforniaConference Info
October 2-6, 2017
Rome, ItalyConference Info
November 13‒17, 2017
Kansas City, Missouri