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Advanced Baseline Imager Scan Mode Information

ABI 10-Minute Flex Mode Overview

On or about April 2, 2019, at 1600 UTC, the GOES-16 and GOES-17 Advanced Baseline Imagers will begin operating in a new 10-minute flex mode (mode 6). Ten-minute flex mode is very similar to the current flex mode (mode 3) with one exception: a full disk image is generated every 10 minutes instead of every 15 minutes. Contiguous U.S. (CONUS) for GOES-16/ Pacific U.S. (PACUS) for GOES-17 scans (3000 km by 50000 km) will still be provided every five minutes, in addition to two mesoscale domains (1000 km by 1000 km) every 60 seconds (or one domain every 30 seconds if scanning the same domain).

There are a number of advantages to 10-minute full disk images. It allows NOAA to match the full-disk scanning cadence of our international partners like the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), and the next generation of European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) geostationary satellites (starting in 2021). This allows nearly global advanced imager coverage every 10 minutes.

Ten-minute full disk imagery will also be critical to our National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices, National Centers, and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers in monitoring hazardous weather conditions and providing additional information in observationally limited areas like over the oceans or in the mountains. The faster temporal cadence will also improve aviation safety. For example, GOES are paramount in monitoring volcanic activity and associated ash plumes. The improved temporal resolution will help monitor these rapidly changing events and help reduce the risk of an airplane encounter with an ash plume. In addition, GOES ABI data can also monitor regions of potential turbulence and since these features can be highly transient, the 10-minute full disk scanning ability will help with monitoring of this hazard.

The timelines, i.e. the number/type of scans in a 10-minute period, are slightly different between GOES-16 and GOES-17. This is intentional as more calibration and navigation scans are included in the GOES-17 mode 6 timeline to mitigate impacts of operating at higher temperatures. See the GOES-17 ABI Performance webpage for information about the cooling system anomaly.

GOES-16 (GOES East) will use timeline mode 6A and GOES-17 (GOES West) will use timeline mode 6M. Timelines for each satellite can be found at the NOAA Office of Satellite and Product Operations GOES Schedules and Scan Sectors webpage.

ABI: Scan Mode 6A : Timeline Definition

NOTE : This depiction of the timeline is only accurate to 1/10 sec. resolution.
NOTE : Tables scroll horizontally on small devices/screens.

Sec 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
0 MESO1
30 MESO2
60 MESO1
90 MESO2
120 CONUS1 MESO1
150 MESO2
180 MESO1
210 MESO2
240 MESO1
270 FullDisk MESO2
300 MESO1
330 MESO2
360 MESO1
390 MESO2
420 CONUS2 MESO1
450 MESO2
480 MESO1
510 MESO2
540 MESO1
570 MESO2

Scan Mode 6A timeline, used by GOES-16 (GOES East). These images have time (over 10 minutes total) on both of the axes and show type of scanning (either for calibration and navigation, or collecting images of the Earth).



FullDisk Swath
CONUS Swath
MESO Swath
VIS StarLook
IR StarLook
SpaceLook
ScanOps
IR Calibration
NadirStare


ABI: Scan Mode 6M : Timeline Definition

NOTE : This depiction of the timeline is only accurate to 1/10 sec. resolution.
NOTE : Tables scroll horizontally on small devices/screens.

Sec 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
0 MESO1
30 ME
60 SO2 MESO1
90 MESO2
120 CONUS1 MESO1
150 MESO2
180 MESO1
210 MESO2
240 MESO1
270 FullDisk MESO2
300 MESO1
330 MESO2
360 MESO1
390 MESO2
420 CONUS2 MESO1
450 MESO2
480 MESO1
510 MESO2
540 MESO1
570 MESO2

Scan Mode 6M timeline, used by GOES-17 (GOES West). This timeline allows for more calibration/validation. These images have time (over 10 minutes total) on both of the axes and show type of scanning (either for calibration and navigation, or collecting images of the Earth).



FullDisk Swath
CONUS Swath
MESO Swath
VIS StarLook
IR StarLook
SpaceLook
ScanOps
IR Calibration
NadirStare


GOES-17 mode 6 will improve the overall calibration of the PACUS and mesoscale scenes due to the optimization of mode 6 to reduce the magnitude of calibration fluctuations with more frequent calibration updates. The optimized version of the mode 6 timeline will reduce periodic infrared calibration anomaly (PICA) impacts and decrease degradation during times of marginal impacts from increasing focal plane module (FPM) temperatures. There are PICA anomalies present in the data that can be seen as regular and repeating pulses in infrared brightness temperatures.

A new predictive calibration will be implemented in mid-2019 that will also improve calibration accuracy (e.g. PICA) and image quality during periods of elevated FPM temperatures. It will not affect saturation of bands when temperatures exceed a saturation threshold (on a band-by-band basis).

See the ABI instrument web page for information about other scan modes.